Lorraine Sugar is a PhD student and Vanier Scholar at the University of Toronto in civil engineering. Her research focuses on cities and climate change, including data and monitoring systems for city-based climate action. Lorraine recently returned to academia after five years as a climate change specialist at the World Bank, where she worked on carbon finance and urban development projects, including the Rio de Janeiro Low Carbon City Development Program in Brazil. She has published research articles and reports about greenhouse gas emissions from global cities, urban metabolism, and low carbon city development. Lorraine holds a MASc in civil engineering from the University of Toronto, and a BSc in physics from the University of Western Ontario.